Laboratory of Innovative Biotechnology


Zenoviy Yu. Tkachuk

Ph.D. (Mol. Biol.), Senior Staff Scientist
Phone: (380-44) 526-20-16
Fax: (380-44) 526-07-59;

Education and Degrees:

1965–1970 Graduate Student, Faculty of Biology, Yurii Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, M.Sc. (biochemistry)

1971–1973 Postgraduate Student, Department of Genetics of Microorganisms, D. K. Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology (IMV), NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

1974 Ph.D. (genetics of microorganisms)

Professional Employment:

1974–1977 Junior Research Scientist, Department of Genetics of Microorganisms, IMV NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

1977–1983 Junior Research Scientist, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics (IMBG), NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

1983–1987 Senior Research Scientist, IMBG NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

1987–1998 Head of the Laboratory of Oligonucleotides Biochemistry, IMBG NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

since 2004 Head of the Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, IMBG NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

since 2022 Head of the Laboratory of Innovative Biotechnology, IMBG NASU, Kyiv, Ukraine

1991–1992 Advisor to the Verhovna Rada of Ukraine

1992–1993 Advisor to the Prime-minister of Ukraine

1993–1994 Advisor to the President of Ukraine

1995–1996 Advisor to the Speaker of Ukraine

1996–1997 Advisor to the Prime-minister of Ukraine

Research Area:

Studying the mechanism of action of 2’-5’oligoadenylates and their role in the regulation of the innate immunity

Creating new immunomodulatory and antiviral drugs from natural oligonucleotides

Сurrent Research Activities and Recent Achievements:

We study the immunomodulatory effects and antiviral activity of oligoadenilates against a wide range of viruses of both DNA and RNA nature. We also investigate the effect of oligonucleotides on innate immunity genes expression at various viral diseases and cancer.
Fig. 1. Structures of 2’-5’- oligoadenylate and its analogues, that were synthesized by phosphotriester method
We examine the polyvalent activity of oligoadenilates and their ability to bind signaling proteins, slightly altering their conformation and thus modulating their activity. These are primarily Ca2+ binding proteins, protein kinases and nucleases. The ability of oligonucleotides to change the secondary structure of both viral DNA and RNA, making them accessible for enzymatic cleavage is studied.
Fig. 2. MALDI mass spectrum of interferon and 3’-5’oligoadenylate. It was shown that all investigated oligoadenylates, regardless of their length and structural features, are capable of multiple interactions with α-interferon
The hypothesis which explains the mechanism of action of oligoadenylates and their involvement in the regulation of innate immunity has been proposed. Based on this hypothesis, a new imunomodulating drug Nucleinat and antiviral medicine Nuclex with a wide spectrum of action have been developed and implemented. Nuclex is effective against different viruses of both RNA and DNA nature.
Fig. 3. Multy antiviral drug Nuclex. Indications for use. As the drug in the antiinfluenza and flu therapy. In complex therapy of the chronic virus hepatitis, urogenital herpes. Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine 01.09.10 No. 752

National Grants:

Projects of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine:

  • 2013–2014 Project “Fundamentals of the development of anticancer and antiviral drugs” (scientific supervisors – Dubey I. Ya., Tkachuk Z. Yu.)
  • 2009–2013 Project “To study the mechanism of 2‘, 5’-oligoadenylate interaction with calcium-binding proteins” (scientific supervisor – Tkachuk Z. Yu.)
  • 2007–2010 Project “To study the mechanism of calmodulin activation of “core” 2’-5’-oligoadenylates and their analogues and the synthesis and study of biological activity of new ligands based on oligonucleotides” (scientific supervisor – Tkachuk Z. Yu.)
  • 2004–2008 Project “To study the interaction of 2’-5’-oligoadenylate analogues with fosfodiesterase of cyclic nucleotides and to monitor new anti-inflammatory drugs in vitro and in vivo” (scientific supervisors – Tkachuk Z. Yu., Dubey I. Ya.).


with Ukrainian organizations:

  • Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (Kyiv)
  • Institute of Physics, NASU (Kyiv)
  • O. V. Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU (Kyiv)

with foreign organizations:

  • Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, PAS (Warsaw, Poland).

Selected publications:

  1. Tkachuk, Z., Melnichuk, N., Nikolaiev, R.O., Szutkowski, K., Zhukov, I. The natural oligoribonucleotides functionalized by D-mannitol affected interactions of hemagglutinin with glycan receptor indicating anti-influenza activity. Membranes, 2021, 11(10), 757
  2. Gryn, D.V., Yashchuk, V.M., Tkachuk, Z.Y. Some peculiarities of spectral properties of various compounds of adenine nucleotide and polynucleotide. Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, 2021, 717(1), pp. 54–59
  3. Kashuba, V.I., Hryshchenko, N.V., Gerashchenko, G.V., ...Tkachuk, Z.Yu., Tukalo, M.A. Identification and characterization of the sars-cov-2 lineage b.1.1.7 upon the new outbreak of the covid-19 in Ukraine in february 2021. Biopolymers and Cell, 2021, 37(2), pp. 117–124
  4. Obernikhina, N., Kachaeva, M., Shchodryi, V., ...Brovarets, V., Tkachuk, Z. Topological Index of Conjugated Heterocyclic Compounds as Their Donor/Acceptor Parameterю. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 2020, 40(4), pp. 1196–1209
  5. Gerashchenko, G.V., Vagina, I.M., Vagin, Y.V., ...Tkachuk, Z.Y., Kashuba, V.I. Expression pattern of immune-and cancer-associated genes in peripheral blood of mice bearing melanoma cells. Biopolymers and Cell, 2019, 35(4), pp.313-320
  6. Shchodryi, V., Obernikhina, N., Shaydyk, Y., ...Yu, S., Tkachuk, Z. Fluorescent Probe for Investigation of Influence of Ribonucleosides with D-Mannitol. 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Electronics and Nanotechnology, ELNANO 2019 - Proceedings, 2019, pp.385-389, 8783955
  7. Obernikhina, N., Kachaeva, M., Shchodryi, V., ...Brovarets, V., Tkachuk, Z. Topological Index of Conjugated Heterocyclic Compounds as Their Donor/Acceptor Parameter. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 2020, 40(4), pp.1196-1209
  8. Marchyshak T.V., Yakovenko T.G., Tkachuk Z.Yu. Influence of oligoribonucleotides-D-mannitol complexes on the expression of genes under acute thioacetaamide-induced hepatotoxicity. Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, N 7, 2018. – Р. 96-102
  9. Skorobogatov OY, Kukharenko AP, Kozlov OV, Dubey IY and Tkachuk ZY. 2'-5'-Linked Triadenylates Act as Protein Kinase Activity Modulators. Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics. 2018. V. 10, № 12. – Р. 320-323. DOI: 10.4172/jpb.1000457
  10. Marchyshak T.V., Yakovenko T.G., Igor Shmarakov, Tkachuk Z.Yu. The Potential Protective Effect of Oligoribonucleotides-d-Mannitol Complexes against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice. Pharmaceuticals, N 11 (3), 2018. – Р.1-14. doi:
  11. Melnichuk N., Semernikova L., Tkachuk Z. Complexes of Oligoribonucleotides with D-Mannitol Inhibit Hemagglutinin–Glycan Interaction and Suppress Influenza A Virus H1N1 (A/FM/1/47) Infectivity In Vitro. Pharmaceuticals. 2017. V. 10, №3: 71. DOI: 10.3390/ph10030071
  12. Melnichuk N., Semernikova L., Tkachuk Z.. Study on oligoribonucleotides-D-mannitol complexes effects on the influenza A virus H1N1 (A/FM/1/47) infectivity in vitro and expression of some host genes under the influenza infection in vivo. Biopolymers and Cell. – 2017. – Vol. 33. N 3: 229
  13. K. Ferenc,T. Pilżys, T. Skrzypek, D. Garbicz, M. Marcinkowski, M. Dylewska,P. Gładysz, O. Skorobogatov, Z. Gajewski, E. Grzesiuk, R. Zabielski. Structure and Function of Enterocyte in Intrauterine Growth Retarded Pig Neonates. Hindawi Disease Markers. Article ID 5238134 (9 pages), 2017. doi:10.1155/2017/5238134
  14. M.M. Vivcharyk, O.O. Ilchenko, S.M. Levchenko, Z.Yu. Tkachuk. RNA Complex with mannitol, its spectral characteristics and biological activity. Reports of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 2016, 10: 78-83.
  15. Melnichuk N., Vivcharyk M., Tkachuk Z. Effect of Oligoribonucleotides-D-mannitol complex on the hemagglutinin of influenza A (H1N1) virus. 8th International conference bioresources and viruses, 12-14th September 2016, Kyiv, Ukraine. – 2016. Abstract P. 45-46.
  16. Shmarakov IO, Marchyshak TV, Borschovetska VL, Marchenko MM, Tkachuk ZYu. Hepatoprotective activity of exogenous RNA. Ukr. Biochem. J. 2015; 87(4):37-44.
  17. Chernega OI, Levchenko SM. Nature of the lowest electronic transition of thia- and quino-cianines with fluori-nated polimethine chaine. Dyes and Pigments. 2015; 123:176-185.
  18. Tkachuk Z. Multiantivirus compo-und, composition and method for treatment of virus disease. US patent. 2014;#8,722,642 B2:61.
  19. Tkachuk ZYu, Kozlov AV, Skorobogatov OYu. Structural Changes In Therapeutic RNAs. Macromolecular Symposia. 2014;335:17-19.
  20. Levchenko SM, Rebriev AV, Tkachuk VV, et al. The detection of interaction betwe-en oligonucleotides and interferon, a key protein of antiviral cell defense system. Mol.Cryst.Liq.Cryst. 2014;590(1):213-220.
  21. Viniychuk OO, Levchenko SM, Przhonska OV, et al. Electronic transition in polymerthine dyes involving local and delocalized levels. Jour.Mol.Str. 2014;1060:30-37.
  22. Bashmakova N, Shaydyuk E, Levchenko S, et al. Desigh and electronic structure of new styryl dye bases: steady-state and time resolved spectrosco-pic studies. Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 2014;118(25):4502-4509.
  23. Skorobogatov O, Lozhko D, Zhukov I, et al. Impact of dephos-phorylated 2'-5'-linked oligoade-nylates on apo-S100A1 protein’s conformation, studied by hetero-nuclear NMR and circular dichroism. Biopolym. Cell. 2014;30:279-285.
  24. Tkachuk ZYu. 2'5'Oligoadenylates as a "tool" of innate immunity. Biopolym. Cell. 2013; 29(4):266–76. doi:10.7124/bc.000821
  25. Levchenko SM, Rebriev AV, Tkachuk VV, Dubey LV, Dubey IYa, Tkachuk ZYu. Studies on the interaction of oligoadenylates with proteins by MALDITOF mass spectrometry. Biopolym. Cell. 2013; 29(1):42–8. doi: 10.7124/bc.000804
  26. Tkachuk Z. Multiantivirus compound, composition and method for treatment of virus disease. – United States Patent – 2013 –N 8,420,617 B2. Apr.16, P. 38.
  27. Tkachuk ZYu, Sotska YaA, Frolov VM, Kruglova OA. Nuclex therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C. Int. J. Immunological Studies. 2012; 1(4):349–64. doi:10.1504/IJIS.2012.051236
  28. Frolov VM, Tkachuk ZYu, Kruglova OA. Application of immuno modulator Nucleinat in clinical practice Infections Diseases. 2012. 4:82–90.
  29. Tkachuk ZYu, Dubey L, Tkachuk VV, et al. Studying the interaction of 2'­5'­oligoadenylate and their counterparts from proteins by fluorescence spectroscopy. Ukr.biohim.Zh. 2011; 83(1):45–53.
  30. Tkachuk Z. Compound, compozision and method for treatment of inflammatory and inflammatory­related disorders. ­ United States Patent­2004­ N US 6,737,271. May 18, P.38.